• Photo by Rantje Allen

  • Photo by William Tan

  • Photo by Rantje Allen

  • Photo by William Tan

  • Photo by Rantje Allen

Loading content - please wait...

Category Archives: Marine Life

Salvador Dali sponge spawns

Sponge spawning of a Salvador Dali sponge gave divers a glimpse of a rarely witnessed event. Occasionally, Miguel’s Diving staff witness a large sponge releasing sperm into the current. This video records the only time we have witnessed spawning of a Salvador Dali sponge.

Salvador Dali Sponge Spawning

Most sponges are hermaphrodites, having both male and female reproduction capacity. Other sponges, like Barrel sponges, reproduce by spawning. Males release clouds of sperm into the current. Since the sperm is buoyant, the event looks like the sponge is smoking.

A female sponge will release eggs into the current. However, eggs are negatively buoyant, so the eggs sink to the ocean bottom. Some eggs may remain inside the ex-current opening of large vase and barrel sponges. When a female sponge releases her eggs, the nearby area of ocean bottom will look as if snow has fallen there. Miguel’s Diving staff have never seen a female sponge releasing eggs.

Spawning of a Salvador Dali sponge

In the video of a Salvador Dali sponge spawning, notice the clouds of sperm into the current. This indicates that the sponge is male. No one knows how often a particular sponge will spawn. Miguel’s Diving staff have witnessed simultaneous sponge spawning among numerous sponges over a certain area of reef.

Gorontalo’s Surreal Sponge

When Miguel’s Diving first opened diving in Gorontalo, we discovered a strange and giant sponge. No one had seen this morphology before, although they were quite common on Gorontalo’s deep walls.

The surreal surfaces of this sponge reminded us of the Spanish painter Salvador Dali. So, we began calling it the Salvador Dali sponge.  

A Local Morphology of Petrosia lignosa

Sponge spawning of Salvador Dali
First ever photo of a Salvador Dali spoge

In order to discover the identity of this unusual sponge, we sent two samples to Nicole J. de Voogd. She was studying sponges at the Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam. The interior bodies of sponges are composed of mazes of microscopic spicules. Each sponge species has a unique pattern. After looking at the two samples we sent under a microscope, Nicole could identify our Salvador Dali sponge. It is Petrosia lignosa.

The genus name Petrosia actually means “stony hard.” When compared with other sponges, all Petrosid sponges are hard and rock-like. So far, Petrosia lignosa is known only from vertical walls in eastern Indonesia. It was first described in 1925 from the Togian Islands, south of Gorontalo. However, in other locations this sponge lacks the distinctive swirls found on our Salvador Dali sponges.

No one knows why this sponge looks so different here in Gorontalo. According to Nicole, the “Salvador Dali sponge” would be a locally unique morphology of Petrosia lignosa

Although divers cannot expect to witness sponge spawning, Salvador Dali sponges are common in Gorontalo. For your chance to see some for yourself, please make your dive reservations and join us for some great diving.

Galaxy Coral Forms Massive Colonies in Gorontalo

Galaxy coral forms the largest hard coral colonies in Gorontalo. Massive mounds and columns of this spiky coral astound passing divers.

Stars of the Reef

A colony of Galaxy coral is made up of countless individual corallites. A single Galaxy corallite measures between three and four millimeters. A corallite is composed of a circular polyp, which is living. Surrounding the polyp are ridges that radiate from its center. These radiating ridges serve to protect the polyp from predators. These radiating ridges give each individual polyp the appearance of a star. A colony composed of countless stars gives rise to a galaxy of coral.

However, divers should be careful when approaching Galaxy coral. Those radiating ridges are extremely sharp and can easily cut one’s skin. Moreover, the scientific term for radiating ridges is septa.

Galaxea astreata

Galaxy polyps in Gorontalo
Galaxea polyps open

The most common Galaxy coral in Indo-Pacific waters is Galaxea astreata. Usually, its colonies are low and encrust the substrate. At other times, it forms upright columns. For Galaxea astreata, its septa count is eight to twelve. Usually, it does not fully extend its polyps during the day. This helps protect it from daytime predators. In the closeup shot from Gorontalo, note the white-tipped polyps in this daytime photo.

Galaxy coral in Gorontalo

Galaxy coral colonies
Massive Galaxy colonies in Gorontalo

The large and notable Galaxy colonies of Gorontalo are most likely Galaxea astreata. In total, there are ten species of Galaxy corals. Possibly, Galaxea fasicularis is the coral found at dive sites here because it forms the largest known colonies. In Gorontalo, Galaxy corals form colonies larger than a city bus. This colony size is far larger than any described in scientific literature. In the wide angle shot from Gorontalo, note that the corals far in the background are still part of this massive colony of Galaxy coral.    

Two factors contribute to the giant size of Galaxy colonies in Gorontalo. The marine environment here is extremely healthy. Also, Galaxy corals possess special sweeper tentacles. These are a defensive organ tipped with powerful stings. Those stings keep other corals from living close by. That makes room for the colony to expand.

Galaxy corals not only feed on plankton caught with the polyp’s tentacles. Inside its body live zooxanthella. These convert sunlight into food. Notably, Gorontalo lies slightly north of the equator, so sunlight is abundant.

For your chance to marvel at the Galaxy coral found in Gorontalo, please book your dive trip with us.

Bottlenose Dolphin Video

Bottlenose Dolphin video from Gorontalo, Indonesia, brings joy to those who love the sea and its many inhabitants.

Side Job with Benefits

Miguel’s Diving is committed to educating and training local Gorontalo people to work in the marine tourism sector. As a result, almost all of our staff are local fishermen. Moreover, all of our dive staff have successfully trained to be PADI dive masters.

On days when they are not diving, our dive staff often head to sea to fish. Gorontalo is an exporter of high-quality Yellowfin Tuna. The tuna is caught by handline from small wooden boats. These boats are outrigger canoes and made by hand in the village. A fisherman here can only catch one tuna at a time. That makes this local style of fishing most eco-friendly.

Bottlenose Dolphin Video

At the urging of Miguel’s Diving, our dive staff bring their handphones sometimes when they go to sea. One day, Boka, one of our dive masters, joined a school of happy dolphins. He made this Bottlenose Dolphin video to share. Enjoy – the dolphins clearly did!

A Pod of Bottlenose Dolphin play in Goronotalo

Cetaceans are commonly seen in Gorontalo waters. Ocean depths drop below four kilometers not far from our coastline. In this Bottlenose Dolphin video, the proximity of deep blue waters to shore is clearly visible.

Pods that Pass

Pods of Bottlenose dolphin often pass through Gorontalo waters. Inshore Bottlenose Dolphins tend to be smaller than those that stay in deep water. Indeed, they are the smallest cetaceans we see regularly. Adults typically measure less than two meters long. Their most prominent feature is their beaked “bottle” nose. Also, they stay in social groupings called pods. They are friendly and active. This identifying behavior makes the Bottlenose Dophin video so entertaining.

For your chance to see Bottlenose Dolphins, please make your dive reservations with us.

White ribbon eel glides in Gorontalo

White ribbon eel glides across the sandy bottom in shallow water. It undulates in effortless motions.

An Unexpected Sighting

During daylight hours, white ribbon eels usually stay hidden in their sandy dens. They live in shallow lagoons, preferring areas with white sand. At night, they emerge in search of food. They prefer to eat small crustaceans and molluscs. Sometimes, they will eat nudibranchs.

white ribbon eel face
A White ribbon eel glides over the sand

At other times, they will move from one den to another. This means they will swim across the sandy bottom. One day, Miguel’s Diving staff observed a White ribbon eel doing just that. However, this one did not move quickly from one hole to another. It spent fifteen minutes swimming across the bottom. Occasionally, it stuck its head into goby holes. Perhaps it was searching for a shrimp to eat.

Once, it swam underneath some cloth lost by a fisherman. The cloth was half buried in the sand. Soon, the White ribbon eel emerged from the other side. After crossing back and forth, it finally disappeared head first into a hole.   

Elegance in Motion

This ribbon eel has a pale body color. Its dorsal fin is continuous and edged in brilliant white. Its face is peppered with small spots. When swimming, its motion in indeed like a sensuous ribbon.

The Truly Unique White Ribbon Eel

White ribbon eels belong to its own genus of which it is the only species. That means its morphology is truly unique. As with other eels, it does not have scales. Instead, slime covers its body. This mucous coating allows it to enter and exist holes in sand and gravel without getting scratches. Also, the slime repels parasites.

The eyesight of this unique eel is not as good as its sense of smell. That sense is well developed. Moreover, it has not two nostrils but four. The first pair lie on the tip of its nose. The second pair are barely visible and lie level with its eyes. Its sense of smell leads the White ribbon eel to its prey. In fact, during the long interval with our dive staff, the ribbon eel totally ignored the diver and camera. Nothing good to eat there!

ribbon eel searches for food
A White ribbon eel searches for food

As with many eels, the branchial openings are small holes. They are found behind the head, one on each side.

The maximum length of this beautiful ribbon eel is about one meter. However, most measure between fifty and eighty centimeters in length.

Its Scientific Name

Pseudechidna brummeri is the official name of the White Ribbon eel. Its genus name consists of two Greek words. Pseudes means false and echidna means viper. This name is meant to describe the pointed feature of its long snout.

Pieter Bleeker was a Dutch doctor who lived in Indonesia for eighteen years. During that time, he collected over twelve thousand specimens of marine life. He published extensive studies in his two work classic Atlas Ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises. One of the species he discovered and named was the White ribbon eel, Pseudechidna brummeri. The species name honors Lieutenant Medical Colonel Brummer. Brummer was a colleague, friend and fellow collector.

For your chance to dive with beautiful marine life, please make your dive reservations and perhaps you will sight a ribbon eel.

Pilot Whale Beaches in Gorontalo

A pilot whale beached itself close to Olele Marine Park in Gorontalo on 3 January 2020.

Too Big to Help

A local fisherman named Iwan Adam discovered the large pilot whale on the beach near his house in Tolotio Village. The time was 0530 hours. According to Iwan, the cetacean was still breathing and alive when he found it. So, he called nine friends to discuss options for saving the whale. Unfortunately, the discovery coincided with low tide.  Also, the pilot whale weighed almost two tons. Dragging the whale over the rocks and coral proved impossible, given the conditions. Although they poured water on it to keep it cool, the whale died twenty minutes later and before the tide rose again.

pilot whale beached
Short-finned pilot whale beached in Gorontalo

Government officials arrived to assess the situation. According to their notes, the whale measured 482 centimetres long. Its girth was 220 centimetres. Moreover, it was male. In order to avoid contamination, the villagers buried the carcass.

Sightings of Pilot Whales in Gorontalo

Miguel’s Diving staff have observed pilot whales on other occasions. Although these cetaceans are famous for traveling in pods, we have only observed single pilot whales near diving areas. Pods of pilot whales occasionally pass Gorontalo fishermen, who are handlining yellowfin tuna farther from shore. The dorsal fin of a pilot whale tends to fold back a bit. Thus, with this observation, visual identification is possible.

The Short-Finned Pilot Whale

dead whale
Distinctive head, mouth and fins of a pilot whale

The unfortunate whale that beached itself was a Short-finned Pilot Whale. Globicephala macrorhynchus is its scientific name. Distinguishing features include a rounded, bulbous head. Its fins are set forward on its body and point sharply back. The mouth slants upward. Mostly, its color is uniformly black. Some individuals exhibit a diagonal stripe from eye to dorsal fin and a cape. Sometimes, a lighter belly patch is visible. The body is slender but robust. In death all color will be lost.

The Short-finned Pilot Whale is among a group of marine life called blackfish. These cetaceans are mostly jet black in color. The Long-finned Pilot Whale is not found in our area, as it prefers the cold waters of the northern and southern oceans. In Gorontalo, Miguel’s Diving staff have seen other blackfish species. This includes Pygmy Killer Whale, Melon-Headed Whale and False Killer Whale. Surprisingly, the most common blackfish we see are Killer Whales or Orca.

Behavioral Characteristics

Short-finned Pilot Whales usually travels in pods but rarely breaches. Feeding mostly at night, they love deep-sea squid. These whales have no fixed migration routes, but they often follow squid spawning. Also, they prefer the edges of continental shelves and deep underwater canyons. This perfectly describes the marine substrate along the southern shores of Gorontalo in Tomini Bay.

For your chance to see one of Gorontalo’s blackfish, please book your dive trip with us.  

New clingfish species thrives in Gorontalo

New clingfish species thrives in Gorontalo’s biologically rich waters. Unlike the usual Crinoid clingfish, the new species lacks the central stripe down its head and dorsal fin.

Crinoid clingfish

Careful divers can search for clingfish in the central areas of certain crinoids. Crinoids are also called feather stars. Clingfish prefer Comanthus bennetti for hosts. The usual species found there is named Discotrema crinophilum. Crinophilum means “friend of crinoid.” Its common name is Crinoid clingfish. It has a thick white to yellow line around its entire body. More importantly, it has a central stripe from its head down its back. Originally, its name was D. crinophila, but that was corrected.

New clingfish species

new clingfish species
Oneline clingfish from Gorontalo

Dr. John E. Randall was photographing various crinoid clingfish in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. He also collected some specimens. During this expedition, he noticed a color variation. His research partner, Dr. Matthew T. Craig, used DNA sequence data to investigate. With this data, the team proved that the clingfish with the different color pattern was a new species.

The new clingfish species Discotrema monogrammum lacks the stripe down the back. It only has the single lateral stripe around its body. Hence, it is named monogrammum. Its common name would be Oneline clingfish.

Additionally, Crinoid clingfish have a pectoral fin ray count of 25 to 28. However, the new clingfish species has only 23 to 25. Moreover, the Oneline clingfish has one or two less vertebrae than the Crinoid clingfish. All these confirm the new clingfish species.

Scientists confirm only three species of Discotrema clingfishes. Research on D. crinophilum was in 1976. The team of Craig & Randall completed research on D. monogrammum in 2008. Additionally, they discovered another new clingfish species in Fiji.

golden Oneline clingfish
Golden variation of D. monogrammum

Research and underwater photographs confirm the distribution of the Oneline clingfish. Primarily, it lives in Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef.  Also, it lives around Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

A tiny fish that clings

Clingfishes have a sucking disc on their belly. That disc consists of modified pelvic fins and folds of skin. Also, they have no scales. Instead, a heavy mucus covers their skin. That mucus is usually toxic. In total, clingfishes comprise 36 genera and 151 species. As noted, there are only three species in the Discotrema genus. That includes the new clingfish species D. monogrammum. The maximum size of these clingfishes is about three centimeters.

For your chance to see one of these tiny treasures, please book you dive trip with us.

Clownfish eggs delight scuba divers

Clownfish eggs delight divers who happen to spot them. The parents will lay a patch of eggs close to an anemone. That anemone serves as their protective residence.

Clownfish Eggs from Light to Dark

clownfish eggs guarded by parents
Clownfish tend their eggs

When mating time approaches, the male clownfish will select a place for the female to lay her eggs. Moreover, the place will be close to the protective cover of their host anemone. He will clean the area, removing debris and any algae there. When the female is ready, she will join the male and inspect the location. She will deposit from 400 to 1,000 eggs in a patch. The male will fertilize them immediately. Each egg will measure about three to four millimetres in length.

After that, the male will tend the clownfish eggs. He will fan the eggs with his fins and clean them with his mouth. Also, he will eat any infertile eggs. New eggs are brightly colored from yellow to red. This depends on the species. However, as the clownfish eggs mature, their color darkens noticeably. This process takes about six to eight days to mature. Prior to hatching, the eggs become transparent. At that time, divers can the eyes and mouth of the new Nemos inside the eggs.

Clownfish eggs will hatch a few hours after dark. Research shows that these eggs will not mature in the presence of light pollution. The new larvae or fries swim in the free ocean and eat plankton. Those that survive will seek an anemone to call home. As they grow, they gradually acquire immunity to the stings of their host anemone. Researchers disagree on how immunity is acquired.

Transgender Rules

clownfish eggs ready to hatch
Clownfish eggs ready to hatch

The largest clownfish in a colony will be the female. All nemo fries are male. If the female dies or is removed, the dominant male will become female. That means that clownfish are hermaphrodites.

Because these fish live with anemones, some people call them anemonefish. Also, many people call them Nemo, a name that people easily recognize.

Clownfish of Gorontalo

Clownfish live in Asia Pacific waters where the species number twenty-eight. The clownfish from the Nemo films is the False or Western clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris). Almost identical is the Orange or Eastern Clownfish (Amphiprion percula). Sulawesi marks the transition area between western and eastern species. Both of these have been photographed in Tomini Bay where Miguel’s Diving operates.

The Eastern clownfish looks different than the western species. Its black edging is noticeably thicker. Also, the eastern species has an orange iris. This makes its eye look smaller.

For your chance to see clownfish eggs, please book your dive trip with us.

Hairy frogfish video

Hairy frogfish video makes for compelling watching, especially one in which the fish actively lures potential prey. This video from Gorontalo shows a Hairy frogfish doing exactly that.

Striated or Hairy?

The scientific name of the fish in the Hairy frogfish video is Antennarius striatus. As such, it is commonly called Striated frogfish. This particular fish species has such a variable appearance that neither “striated” nor “hairy” accurately describe each individual found in nature. That includes the one in the video from Gorontalo. The fish’s environment determines its exterior appearance to a large extent. In fact, if a particular frogfish moves to a different environment, it will change appearance within three weeks to match. That means that the elongated blotches or the long filaments on the skin may not be apparent on any particular individual fish. It can sport almost any color.

photo from Hairy frogfish video
Notice the lure

Moreover, the best feature for positively identifying Antennarius striatus is its lure.

A Unique Lure

The first dorsal spine in many frogfish species is free moving. Called an illicium, this spine acts like a fishing pole. At the end of the illicium of Antennarius striatus is a fleshy lure. The unique lure or esca of this species of frogfish is long, extending perpendicularly from each side of the lure. Many descriptions of this frogfish say that the lure looks like a worm, However, that is not particularly true of the one seen in the Hairy frogfish video from Gorontalo. Take a look and notice its pale color and spots. This one looks more like a shrimp dancing above the rubble. When not in action, the lure will rest on the forehead of the frogfish.

Hairy Frogfish Video

As you watch this video from Gorontalo, notice the way the frogfish pulls itself along the sandy bottom. It is using its pectoral fins. This is a distinctive movement of various frogfish.

Judging by how active it is, both in flicking its lure and pulling itself to a new position, this frogfish is clearly hungry. It is on the hunt! Many frogfish species, including the Hairy frogfish, have a large mouth. As a result, a frogfish can extended its mouth forward and swallow prey as large as itself. That also means that its stomach has plenty of room.

Typically, frogfish lie motionless using its well-adapted coloration to remain unseen. The videographer never saw this Hairy frogfish catch anything. Perhaps too much movement was to blame. 

Hairy frogfish usually eat other fish. Unlike other species of frogfish, the lure or esca of Antennarius striatus has an additional feature. It is able to secrete a scent that attracts unsuspecting prey to its wiggling lure. This species also can live in waters deeper than other frogfish species. It is found in seas worldwide, except in the Mediterranean and the Arctic. Although the individual seen in the video is very small, it can grow up to 22 centimeters in length.   

Hairy frogfish are only found at a few of Gorontalo’s muck diving sites. This sites are best suited for experienced divers with excellent buoyancy control. For your chance to watch a Hairy frogfish in Gorontalo, please book your dive trip with us.

Arothron immaculatus Emerges from Hiding

Arothron immaculatus or the Immaculate puffer is rarely seen in coral dense environments typical of Gorontalo. But one day it make a surprise appearance.

Hiding on a Sandy Bottom

Arothron immaculatus
An Immaculate puffer tries camouflage

One day a dive master from Miguel’s Diving spotted the bright yellow eye of a fish trying to hiding itself in the white sand bottom. By the way, one of the common names for Arothron immaculatus is Yellow-eyed puffer. Knowing it had been seen, the fish tried to flick more sand over its oval-shaped body. However, its brilliant eyes and strange tufts on top its nose remained clearly visible. It shifted around closer to a mass of corals, revealing a mottled pattern as the grains of white sand began to fall off its body. After posing for a few photos, the fish decided to flee across the white sand bottom. It even and pale color could help it hide undetected there.

Arothron immaculatus around the Pacific  

This Immaculate puffer can be found through Indo-Pacific waters. It clearly prefers sandy or silty bottoms near coral reefs or shallow estuaries. The Arothron immaculatus seen in Gorontalo was living at one of our alternate muck diving sites. The site is called Mystic Point. It is close to the estuary of Bone River. That dive site is known for its relatively poor coral but has a white sand bottom that is rare for our area of Gorontalo. That site has marine life only found there, like the Twin-eyed goby and the Immaculate puffer. This puffer can also be found near mangroves and seagrass beds. Western Gorontalo has those environments, so perhaps this puffer can also be found there.

This puffer is usually solitary and rarely in large numbers in its environments. It is found between three and thirty meters. It is mostly carnivorous.

Arothron immaculatus in Gorontalo
Arothron immaculatus in Gorontalo

Arothron immaculatus has some distinctive markings that help confirm its identity. Apart from its beautiful eyes and nose tufts, its body is basically plain, unless it is sporting the botches of its camouflaged mode. Moreover, it has a large dark patch around its pectoral fin base. Also, it has dark upper and lower margins on its tail fin. A similar species is Arothron manilensis. However, the Manila puffer has distinct thin lines on its body.

The Quixotic and Toxic Puffer

Puffer fish have quite distinctive bodies. This includes tough skin and a dental plate in their beak-like mouth. What they lack is more notable. They lack fin spines and ribs. As a result, they can inflate their stomachs with water when afraid. Moreover, their skin, gonads and liver contain two toxins. These are tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Some species are more toxic than others. Because different puffer species have similar body shapes, identification is most accurate when using color patterns.

For your chance to see one of Gorontalo’s puffer fish, please book your dive trip with us.

Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses

Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses are rarely seen. However, one of them drifted near Miguel’s Diving speed boat during a surface interval. It looked like a giant pink and transparent version of a child’s slinky toy.

Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses

Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg mass floats on the surface

Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses

Mysterious, deep water squids lay eggs in spirals. A gelatinous case holds the long spirals together. After the fertilization process is complete, the egg mass will float with ocean currents near the surface.

Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses can measure up to 1.8 meters in length. Each tiny pink pearl is actually a squid egg. A single egg case carries between 24 and 43 thousand eggs inside its transparent case. The egg mass the Miguel’s Diving staff discovered measured about one meter.

diamond squid egg mass detail
Detail of diamond squid egg mass

Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses drift with strong currents in warm tropical waters. Seeing them is indeed a rare event. This occurrence marks only the second time Miguel’s Diving staff have discovered this type of egg mass during our 16 years of operation.

Diamond Squid from the Depths

This deep water squid is sometimes called diamond or diamondback squid. It has distinctive fins that run its body length. Its scientific name, Thysanoteuthis rhombus, describes its rhombic shape. Its arms are noticeably short. However, it can grow up to 100 centimeters and weigh up to 30 kilograms.   

This diamond quid lives in the deeper parts of the ocean during the day. Trawlers have found it at depths below two kilometers! Since Tomini Bay, where Miguel’s Diving operates, plunge to twice that depth, no one should be surprised to learn deep sea squid live in Gorontalo waters. At night, it will rise nearer the ocean surface. It is found worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas.

The beautiful Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses come from mating pair. The diamond squid are the only cephalopod known to remain in the same mating pair for life. Fishermen observed that if one of the pair is caught, its mate will remain in the area until it is caught as well. Diamond squid naturally live about one year.  

Thysanoteuthis rhombus sketch

Thysanoteuthis rhombus adult

Deep Water Encounter

This squid is fished commercially in Japan. Other predators include tuna, swordfish, sharks, Rough-toothed dolphins, as well as False Killer and Sperm whales. Miguel’s Diving staff have observed all of those predators in the Gorontalo waters of Tomini Bay.

Although divers are unlikely to see these deep water Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses anywhere in the world, our guests often see other pelagic species. For your chance to meet deep water marine life in Gorontalo, please book your dive trip with us.

mgd-logo-block
Visit Us On FacebookVisit Us On YoutubeCheck Our Feed